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Muutamia tuoreita julkaisuja, joissa näytti olevan ihan hyödyllistä tietoa:

Novel Perspective of Medicinal Mushroom Cultivations: A Review Case for ‘Magic’ Mushrooms (Sommano et al., 2023)

Fruiting bodies, mycelia, or spores in the form of extracts or powder of various medicinal mushrooms are used to prevent, treat, or cure a range of ailments and balance a healthy diet. Medicinal mushrooms are found in several genera of fungi and their fruit bodies, cultured mycelia, and cultured broth contains phytochemical constituents such as triterpenes, lectins, steroids, phenols, polyphenols, lactones, statins, alkaloids, and antibiotics. Edible mushrooms are considered functional foods that can be used as supplements for complementary and alternative medicines where the markets are growing rapidly. Several species of edible mushrooms possess therapeutic potential and functional characteristics. The psilocybin-containing types, sometimes known as magic mushrooms, have been utilized for generations by indigenous communities due to their hallucinogenic, medicinal, and mind-manifestation properties. Recent clinical research also convinces that these psychedelics have the potential to treat addiction, depression, anxiety, and other mental health concerns. This has escalated the demand for the natural products derived from the mushrooms of these sources, yet the agronomic aspect and biotechnology approaches to produce the active ingredients are not collectively documented. The objectives of this review article are to examine the general type and variation of therapeutic mushrooms, especially those belonging to the Psilocybe. The biotechnology approach for cultivation and the production of secondary metabolites is also appraised. The ultimate purposes are to provide guidance for farmers and companies to pursue sustainable ways to produce natural products for the development of functional food and pharmaceuticals and to support the alteration of the stigmatic drug concerns around psychedelic mushrooms.

Cultivation, chemistry, and genome of Psilocybe zapotecorum (Miller et al., 2023)

Psilocybe zapotecorum is a strongly blue-bruising psilocybin mushroom used by indigenous groups in southeastern Mexico and beyond. While this species has a rich history of ceremonial use, research into its chemistry and genetics have been limited. Herein, we detail mushroom morphology and report on cultivation parameters, chemical profile, and the full genome sequence of P. zapotecorum. First, growth and cloning methods are detailed that are simple, and reproducible. (…)

The effect of casing and gypsum on the yield and psychoactive tryptamine content of Psilocybe cubensis (Earle) Singer (Foster et al., 2024)

Psychedelic fungi have experienced a surge in interest in recent years. Most notably, the fungal secondary metabolite psilocybin has shown tremendous promise in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. The mushroom species that produce this molecule are poorly understood. Here we sought to examine for the first time, the response of a psilocybin-producing species Psilocybe cubensis to casing (peat moss and vermiculite) and supplementation with gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate), two common practices in commercial mushroom cultivation. Mycelial samples of genetically authenticated P. cubensis were used to inoculate popcorn grain bags. The fully colonized bags of popcorn grain (0.15 kg) were transferred to bins of 0.85 kg pasteurized horse manure, with or without 1 cm thick layer of casing and/or 5 % gypsum. Our results indicate that the use of a casing layer significantly increases the biological efficiency (161.5 %), by approximately four fold, in comparison to control (40.5 %), albeit with a slight delay (∼2 days) for obtaining fruiting bodies and a somewhat reduced total tryptamine content (0.85 %) as gauged by High Performance Liquid Chromatography measurements. Supplementation with both casing and gypsum, however, appears to promote maximal yields (896.6 g/kg of dried substrate), with a biological efficiency of 89.6 %, while also maintaining high total tryptamine expressions (0.95 %). These findings, revealing methods for maximizing yield of harvest and expressions of psychoactive tryptamines, may prove useful for both home growers and commercial cultivators of this species, and ultimately support the growth of a robust industry with high quality natural products.

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DNA Authentication and Chemical Analysis of Psilocybe Mushrooms Reveal Widespread Misdeterminations in Fungaria and Inconsistencies in Metabolites (Bradshaw et al. 2023)

In addition to endogenous metabolites, the accumulation of chemical compounds from the growth substrate is a potential source of other physiologically active metabolites. For example, we detected cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), a chemical component of coconut. CAPB is a common human irritant and allergen, and its presence in the substrate when cultivating P. cubensis sporocarp may be a cause for concern for some people. While we cannot absolutely confirm that this spectral feature is CAPB, neither can we rule out that this compound is endogenously produced by P. cubensis, as our sporocarps were produced using a casing of coconut coir fiber, a likely source of this compound. This would suggest that the accumulation of chemicals and the overall chemical composition of cultivated sporocarps may be a combination of both endogenous and exogenous sources. Indeed, mushrooms are known to sequester chemicals from the environment, where they have been used to remove toxins. This is of particular importance for the potential therapeutic or recreational use of whole mushrooms and requires empirical data to make informed decisions on policies around their production and regulation.